Training events

The project partners will contribute to the design of new LSP teacher training / education programmes that will be offered at European higher education institutions, on a transnational collaborative basis because the problems identified cannot be dealt with on a regional basis only. The first implementation of the programme will take place from 22-26 February 2021 during the LSP teacher training/education summer school which will be held online due to Covid-19.

Module 1: Needs analysis (Monday 22 Feb, 2021, from 09:00h to 12:15h)

Trainers:
Ana Bocanegra-Valle (Plenary session), University of Cadiz, Spain
María Dolores Perea-Barberá (Group 1 session), University of Cadiz, Spain
María Vázquez-Amador (Group 2 session), University of Cadiz, Spain
Paloma López-Zurita (Group 3 session), University of Cadiz, Spain

Module 1 will be the opening session of the TRAILs School next Monday 22. There will be a plenary session followed by three simultaneous group sessions.

The plenary session will be divided into three parts. Part 1 will deal with the general principles about Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP), and LSP challenges, opportunities and constraints; the second part will focus on the methodology of needs analysis; and the third part will illustrate how target and learner needs are analysed in real LSP contexts. The group sessions will be an opportunity for students to conduct their own needs analysis by working with different LSP scenarios.

Needs analysis (or needs assessment) refers to the systematic investigation of needs for the design of a language course and the optimization of language teaching and learning. It has been identified as a defining characteristic in the field of LSP from its start, and its impact on course/materials design/evaluation is well attested in the literature. It is hoped that, at the end of this Module 1, participants in this TRAILs School will have acquired knowledge, skills and competences on the historical development of LSP teaching and learning; the underlying teaching and learning processes of foreign languages for specific and general purposes; the basic concepts of needs analysis in LSP contexts; the different types of needs that LSP learners might have; the adequate methods of needs analysis; the different ways to comprehend needs; the advantages of conducting needs analysis for successful LSP teaching/learning; needs analysis data collection procedures; and, the relation between stakeholders’ perspectives in needs analysis, case studies and particular LSP teaching/learning goals.

Module 2: Course and syllabus design (Monday 22 Feb, 2021, from 13:00h to 16:15h)

Trainers:
Ana Bocanegra-Valle (Plenary session), University of Cadiz, Spain
María Dolores Perea-Barberá (Group 1 session), University of Cadiz, Spain
María Vázquez-Amador (Group 2 session), University of Cadiz, Spain
Paloma López-Zurita (Group 3 session), University of Cadiz, Spain

Module 2 will be taking place on the afternoon session of the TRAILs School next Monday 22. There will be a plenary session followed by three simultaneous group sessions.

The plenary session will be divided into three parts. Part 1 will deal with LSP course and syllabus design; the second part will focus on the evaluation of LSP courses; and the third part will introduce participants to the complex theme of teacher evaluation in LSP contexts. In the group sessions, participants will design their own courses and syllabi by working with different LSP scenarios (based on their previous Module 1 needs analysis results). These practical sessions will also provide participants with opportunities to reflect on course evaluation methods and actions for teacher self-assessment in their own LSP contexts.

Given the central premise that needs analysis is fundamental to curriculum development, and, particularly, to course/syllabus planning, design and evaluation, this Module 2 will try to build connections between the preceding session on needs analysis and the development and evaluation of LSP courses (including LSP teacher evaluation). It is hoped that, at the end of this Module 2, participants in this TRAILs School will have acquired knowledge, skills and competences on the main features of a defensible needs-based curriculum; the objectives and outcomes of LSP courses; the different types of LSP syllabi; the main elements contained in a LSP syllabus; the relevance of specialised discourse and genres for course and syllabus design; the different factors in defining the expected success of an LSP course; identify the causes and consequences of washback; understand the importance of continuous course and self-evaluation; and understand the advantages of reflective teaching practice and self-assessment for course improvement and teacher professional development.

Module 3: Disciplinary context (Tuesday 23 Feb, 2021, from 09:00h to 12:15h)

Trainers:
Violeta Jurkovič (Plenary session and Group 1 session), University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Darja Mertelj (Group 2 session), University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Saša Podgoršek (Group 3 session), University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Module 3 will be taking place on the morning of the Trails School on Tuesday, 23 February. There will be a plenary session followed by three simultaneous group sessions.

The plenary session will be divided into two parts. Part 1 will deal with cooperation with content teachers, discipline professionals & industry, and LSP peer collaboration/Participation in national and international groups/LSP communities of practice. Part 2 will focus on Disciplinary genres. In the group sessions, participants will engage in genre analysis at the micro level, i.e., lexical and grammatical analysis, and genre-based language learning task design. The group sessions will enable the participants to reflect on the importance of disciplinary genres and personalise this opportunity by working on genres related to their present working situations (in-service participants) or genres that they are personally interested in (pre-service-participants).

In relation to cooperation with content teachers, discipline professionals, and industry, at the end of the Trails School the participants will be able to know and understand forms of cooperation with content teachers, discipline professionals, and industry, compare the various advantages of cooperation with content teachers, discipline professionals, and industry, identify the potential professionals and representatives of industry that might be included into LSP teaching, identify the members of national and international associations dealing with different professional/academic disciplines (subject content) to be included into LSP teaching, plan common activities that can potentially be realised in cooperation with content teachers, discipline professionals, and industry, and use online tools and platforms that enable communication and collaborative work with content teachers, discipline professionals, and industry.

In relation to cooperation with other LSP teachers, at the end of the Trails School the participants will be able to identify areas and forms of collaboration with LSP peers, comprehend and select appropriate knowledge and tools for collaborative development, and use digital information to identify the activities of national and international associations, and start various forms of collaboration with LSP peers (e.g., websites advertising LSP conferences, LSP trainings, sharing own teaching practice, information, resources, ideas, expertise).

Finally, in relation to discipline-specific genres, at the end of the Trails School the participants will be able to understand that different disciplines contain different disciplinary genres, know where to find different disciplinary genres, and compare different approaches to the research of disciplinary genres.

Module 4: LSP Teaching Skills (Tuesday, 23 Feb, 2021, from 13:00h to 16:15h)

Trainers:
Brankica Bošnjak Terzić (Plenary session), University of Zagreb, Croatia
Snježana Kereković (Plenary session), University of Zagreb, Croatia
Darja Mertelj (Plenary session), University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Brankica Bošnjak Terzić (Group session 1), University of Zagreb, Croatia
Olinka Breka (Group session 2), University of Zagreb, Croatia
Snježana Kereković (Group session 3), University of Zagreb, Croatia

Module 4 will be taking place in the afternoon session of the TRAILs School on Tuesday 23. There will be a plenary session followed by three simultaneous group sessions. The plenary session will be divided into five parts. The first part will deal with LSP vocabulary teaching/learning; the second part will deal with Selective grammar (form-based) teaching/learning in LSP settings; the third part will deal with the Development of the comprehension of LSP input: reading, listening, audio-visual; the fourth part will deal with the Development of LSP output: writing, speaking; and the fifth part will focus on Teacher Talk.

In the group sessions, participants will report on the differences, advantages, disadvantages and the usage of the digital tools for vocabulary and grammar profiling, they will design and present an outline of receptive and productive activities for LSP vocabulary learning, conduct grammar profiling to find out what grammar structures learners can use and develop an outline of content-based grammar activities from a given text. Further, the participants will discuss criteria for selecting a text/audio visual material for LSP teaching and will develop pre-, while- and post reading, listening, writing and speaking activities for a video material and a written text in different domains.   It is hoped that, at the end of Module 4, participants in the TRAILs School will be able to design and perform various activities for receptive and productive LSP vocabulary/grammar learning/teaching; help their learners to expand their LSP vocabulary; compare digital tools for vocabulary/grammar profiling; enhance their learners’ proficiency in understanding and using the vocabulary of professional and academic texts; prepare and present an outline of different tasks for receptive and productive LSP vocabulary/grammar learning/teaching; enhance learners’ proficiency and awareness of grammatical structures typical of specific professional and academic texts; reflect on and evaluate other participants’ vocabulary/grammar activities. As regards the topic of developing the comprehension of LSP input the participants will be able to design appropriate tasks for the development of LSP learners’ reading/listening/audio-visual comprehension skills; to contrast different comprehension strategies and select the ones appropriate to the comprehension tasks; to prepare and present an outline of an integrated series of tasks (pre-, while- and post-tasks) for the selected LSP input; and to reflect on and evaluate other participants’ outlines of text comprehension tasks. As regards the development of LSP output, the participants will be able to design appropriate tasks for the development of LSP learners’ text production skills; contrast and choose adequate text production strategies to be used in line with the production tasks; to prepare and present an outline of a series of tasks of different cognitive difficulty (guided, semi-guided and free tasks) to enhance LSP output; and reflect on and evaluate other participants’ outlines of the tasks.

Module 5: LSP materials (Wednesday 24 Feb, 2021, from 09:00h to 12:15h)

Trainers:
Cailean Dooge (Plenary session), University of Bergamo, Italy
Katharine Sherwood (Plenary session), University of Bergamo, Italy
Cailean Dooge (Group session), University of Bergamo, Italy
Katharine Sherwood (Group session), University of Bergamo, Italy
Patrizia Anesa (Group session), University of Bergamo, Italy
Michele Sala (Group session), University of Bergamo, Italy

Module 5 deals with the LSP Materials Evaluation and Creation. As regards evaluation, at the end of this module the trainees will be able to: name and know different sets of criteria for the evaluation of LSP teaching materials; understand and explain the advantages and disadvantages of adopting, adapting, and creating LSP teaching materials; and describe the impact of the chosen LSP materials (adopted, adapted, created) in class.

In terms of LSP Materials Design, the trainees will be able to understand and explain the role and function of LSP teaching materials (available and tailor-made) in the LSP teaching/learning process;  distinguish the characteristics of the existing print versus digital resources; identify the advantages of the access to online authentic samples of text; identify the advantages of multimodal material creation; name and know the concept of ‘just-in-time’ custom materials creation; understand and explain the role of authentic LSP texts/genres for the creation of teaching materials; and use the existing concepts and guidelines to create original LSP materials.

Module 6: LSP assessment (Wednesday 24 Feb, 2021, from 13:00h to 16:15h)

Trainers:
Peter John (Plenary session), Flensburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Peter John (Group session), Flensburg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Joanna Kic-Drgas (Group session), Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland
Joanna Wozniak (Group session), Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland

The module will focus on LSP assessment methodology. With trainees we will name and understand the different types of LSP assessment such as formative and summative tests, and placement, achievement and proficiency tests, as well as we will discern which test type is the most appropriate for a given learner’s situation and learning context. Finally, we will discuss the applicability of LSP assessment types in a given context. At the end of the training, trainees will be able to understand and apply the concepts of construct validity, content validity, and criterion validity as well as to develop tools to measure reliability and validate assessment results by means of validity and reliability measures.

Module 7: Task/project/problem-based learning in LSP (Thursday 25 Feb. 2021, from 9:00 to 12:15)

Trainers:
Olinka Breka (Plenary session), University of Zagreb, Croatia
Joanna Kic-Drgas (Group 1, session), Adam-Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
Olinka Breka (Group 2, session), University of Zagreb, Croatia
Joanna Wozniak  (Group 2, session),  Adam-Mickiewicz University, Poznań,  Poland

Module 7 will be taking place in the afternoon session of the TRAILs School on Thursday 25. There will be a plenary session followed by three simultaneous group sessions. The plenary session will be divided into three parts. The first part will deal with task/problem/project-based learning in LSP; the second part will deal with self-directed learning while the third part will focus on multimodal learning in LSP.

In the group sessions, the participants will discuss task-based language teaching, problem-based learning and project-based learning in terms of the position(s) they occupy on the language-content continuum; analyse a set of authentic course syllabi offered at selected European institutions and define the approaches/methods implemented in each syllabus; conceptualise and formulate syllabus objectives following the instructions and design respective tasks based on the aforementioned approaches and methods; conduct self- and/or peer-evaluation of the syllabi objectives and tasks using a proposed set of evaluation criteria; reflect on the difficulties they confronted while preparing the syllabi objectives.     It is hoped that, at the end of Module 7, the participants will have acquired knowledge, skills and competences on the main features and frameworks of task/problem/project-based teaching/learning in LSP as well as on self-directed and multimodal learning. They will be able to create well-designed tasks implementing the fundamental principles of the task/problem/project-based teaching/learning, self-directed learning and multimodal learning; critically analyse and interpret different texts (modes) in terms of their modal affordances; explain the beneficial impact of self-directed learning on LSP learners and life-long learners; use higher-order thinking skills in LSP teaching context; develop their communication and teamwork skills; develop their skills of observing, interpreting and creating multimodal LSP texts and tasks; integrate scaffolding, reflection, and other suitable strategies of task/problem/project-based teaching/learning and self-directed  learning in their LSP teaching practice; identify and use printed and online resources for autonomous learning and use ICT to support cooperation and communication among LSP learners in and outside the classroom.

Module 8: Transversal Skills Workshop (Thursday 25 Feb, 2021, from 13:00h to 16:15h)

Trainers:
Joanna Kic-Drgas (Group session), Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland
Joanna Wozniak (Group session), Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland

Transversal skills are “character traits, attitudes and behaviours-rather than technical aptitude or knowledge” (Robles, 2012, p. 457). As such their meaning in a modern rapidly changing world has been increasing significantly. The aim of our workshop is to show ways how transversal skills can support LSP teaching-learning process. We will discuss not only the chosen aspects of transversal skills as motivation, negotiations, autonomy, critical thinking or tutoring but we will as well show you  examples of its use in LSP class and in teachers’ own development. Our focus is on developing transversal skills based LSP teaching approach, supporting own personal development of LSP teachers and creating room for own teaching creativity.

Module 9: Language corpora in LSP (Thursday 25 Feb, 2021, from 13:00h to 16:15h)

Trainers:
Cinzia Spinzi, University of Bergamo, Italy

This module is optional. By the end of this module trainees will be able to: name and know some of the existing specialized corpora; know and understand the main theoretical assumptions of corpus linguistics, particularly useful for LSP settings; use some of the corpus techniques in LSP materials design;  understand and explain the criteria for corpus design; use some of the corpus techniques for the extraction of discipline-specific terminology; including multi-word units, and use some of the corpus techniques to observe the use of vocabulary in context.

Though practical activities, the trainees will get insights into how to construct an outline for the use of specialized corpora for LSP teaching/learning, in particular for materials design; construct and organize a sample specialized corpus; construct and organize a sample LSP corpus of authentic written and spoken sample texts from the same domain.

Authentic examples of LSP corpora will be used.

Module 10: LSP Research  (Friday 26 Feb, 2021, from 09:00h to 10:30h)

Trainers:
Marie-Anne Châteaureynaud   INSPE (Institute of Teacher Education), University of Bordeaux 
Marie-Christine Deyrich INSPE (Institute of Teacher Education), University of Bordeaux

As module 10 takes place on the last day of the LSP Teacher Training School, it will give us the opportunity to look back on the topics that were addressed and discussed in the previous modules. The objective is to help participants consider how the field of research can relate to their teaching and contribute to the development of a personal research project based on their own needs and within a career development perspective.

LSP research trends and opportunities will be explored and discussed, as a steppingstone to discussions about research questions. Theoretical and practical guidance will be provided to assist in the selection process of relevant and interesting research topics and questions in the field of LSP. We will then raise the question of the research possibilities offered according to the fields of observation and the methodological options for developing a research plan and considering its publication.

Designing the development of the participants’ own career paths will be our final part: the reflection will focus on personal development by considering personal assets and needs and the opportunities for development and collaboration that are both available and promising.

Module 11: Lesson Planning (Friday 26 Feb, 2021, from 10:45 to 14:30)

Trainers:
Saša Podgoršek, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia (Group 1 session)
Mateja Dostal, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia (Group 2 session)
Darja Mertelj, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia (Group 3 session)

Module 11 will be the closing session of the TRAILs School next Friday 26, starting on Friday morning and continuing into the early afternoon. There will be no plenary session for this Module, but there will be three simultaneous group sessions of LSP lesson planning. In pairs or groups of three, participants will utilise the knowledge and skills gained/developed in the previous 4 days, to create a 90-min lesson plan of an LSP topic of their choice.

During the first part of the Module, following a short trainer-led overview of lesson plan related aspects, each group’s topic and pertinent outcomes of the lesson will be defined, as well as taking into consideration the way in which learners will be assessed at the end of the course. After this groups will plan the teaching/learning steps and related tasks. In the second part, two groups will present their respective lesson plan outlines to one another, selecting two activities/ideas to share with everyone later. In the third part, groups will present two of their chosen highlights from their lesson plan outlines to everyone, thus creating an informal take away ‘basket of ideas’ to be used by participants in the future.

TRAILS evaluation Workshop (Friday 26 Feb 2021, from 14:45 to 16:15h)

Trainers:
Joe Cullen, Arcola Research, United Kingdom
Greg Holloway, Arcola Research, United Kingdom

This session will be the final data collection event for the evaluation of TRAILs. It is in fact an evaluation workshop. We will run two focus groups, unpicking the TRAILs experience and generating the material and data that we need to complete an evaluation of the TRAILs Winterschool experience and the TRAILs curriculum. Participants (and trainers) will also repeat the online competences assessment they took before the Winterschool via the “TRAILs learning outcomes assessment tool”.

The TRAILs evaluation methodology takes a ‘realist evaluation’ approach (Pawson, 2006). Realist evaluation allows for context to be taken into consideration when assessing interventions.  The process looks at how something is supposed to work, with the goal of finding out what strategies work for which people, in what circumstances, and how.  In the TRAILs case, the main ‘object of evaluation’ is the TRAILs curriculum and in its implementation in what was to have been a ‘summer school’.